Scotland – the most detailed information about the country with a photo. Attractions, the city of Scotland, climate, geography, population and culture.
- 1 Scotland (Scotland)
- 2 Useful information about Scotland
- 3 Geography and nature
- 4 Climate
- 5 Best time to visit
- 6 Scotland history
- 7 Administrative division
- 8 Population
- 9 Transport
- 10 Cities of Scotland
- 11 Sights of Scotland
- 12 Accommodation
- 13 Kitchen
- 14 Video
- 15 Scotland on the UK map
Scotland – a country in the north of the island which is part of the state of the United Kingdom UK and Northern Ireland. Bordered by land with England and It is washed by the seas of the Atlantic Ocean: the Northern (in the east) and Irish (in the west). The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, and the largest city is Glasgow. The country has amazing authentic atmosphere rich in tradition and wide autonomy.
Scotland is one of the most beautiful places in Britain, which famous for the magnificent dramatic landscapes of the harsh mountains and green valleys, picturesque hills, fields, forests and rugged coastline coast. Here the story surrounds almost everywhere, opening the veil of secrets of the legendary battles, romantic ruins and old stone churches. Scotland is a country amazing variety where you can find almost a complete set tourist attractions: beautiful medieval cities, fabulous castles and beautiful natural landscapes. But the main the highlight of Scotland is the loneliness of remote heather bogs and islands, wild mountains and secluded sandy beaches.
Flag of scotland
- Useful information
- Geography and nature
- Best time to visit
- Administrative division
- Cities of Scotland
Useful information about Scotland
- Population – 5.3 million people.
- The area is 78,722 km2.
- Language – English, Gaelic and Scottish.
- Currency – pound sterling.
- Time – UTC 0, in the summer +1.
- The UK is not a party to the Schengen Agreement. Visa can be obtained by personally visiting an accredited visa centers that are located in Moscow, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don and Yekaterinburg.
- State system – parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
- The predominant religion is Presbyterianism (direction Christian Protestantism).
- The voltage of the electrical network is 230 V, 50 Hz.
- Car traffic – left hand. Drunk driving the form is not allowed. Most intersections are equipped roundabouts.
- The most popular souvenirs are whiskey (scotch) and kilt. Present The kilt is made of wool and is quite expensive (300 – 400 pounds).
Geography and nature
Scotland occupies the northern part of the UK. By its area The territory is approximately equal to the Czech Republic. The country is washed by the seas Atlantic Ocean: Northern and Irish. From the island of Ireland Scotland is separated by a strait. Despite all the diversity of nature and relief, the territory of the country can be divided into three physiographic region: the Highlands of Scotland (occupies north and west), lowlands and south scottish elevation. In the central part of the highlands is the largest Scottish Highlands – The Grampians (including the most the highest point of Scotland and the UK is Ben Nevis 1344 m.).
In terms of topography, Scotland is a country of low mountains and hills. The Highlands covers 60% of the country’s territory, and South Scottish Upland – 20%. Thanks to this Scotland has many pristine natural landscapes. Country has significant seaboard (coastline length, not considering the numerous islands, almost 10,000 km). Western the coast of Scotland is mainly characterized by rugged coastline, reminiscent of the Scandinavian fjords, and cliffs. East of the coast, by contrast, has more even outlines and numerous sandy beaches. Also, coastal waters include more 700 islands, which are combined into the following groups (archipelagoes): Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands and Hebrides.
Scotland is famous for its many picturesque lakes and small rivers. The largest rivers are Tey, Spey, Clyde, Dee, Don, Tweed. The largest lakes: Loch Lomond (the largest lake in the UK), Loch Ness (largest in volume), Loch-O. Also Scotland has an amazing and diverse nature: harsh mountains with fast rivers and waterfalls, meadows and coniferous forests, heather swamps and wastelands, plains and picturesque coast with fjords and sandy beaches.
Most of the territory of Scotland has a temperate climate. It is characterized by cool summer and spring, rainy autumn and relatively mild winter. Everyone knows the variability and the unpredictability of the Scottish weather, when one day can experience all four seasons. Although, in fairness, should note that temperature extremes are rare.
Mountain landscapes of Scotland
Best time to visit
Spring is truly a great time to visit Scotland, though a bit cool during this period (average temperature from 4 to 12 ° C). Summer is the peak of the tourist season with comfortable weather (average temperature from 12 to 20 ° C) and an abundance of cultural events. Autumn – beautiful time of bright colors, which is perfect for visiting castles and parks (average temperature from 7 to 14 ° C and can be a little rainy). Winter is a low tourist season in which have their own charm (average temperature from 2 to 7 ° C).
The history of Scotland is rich and diverse, exciting and complex. Her territory tried to subjugate the Romans and the Vikings. (Normans), the Anglo-Saxons and the British. The first written mention of Scotland dates from the beginning of the Roman conquest of Britain. Although in 1 century AD the Romans occupied only the southern part of the country. North was inhabited by picts and gels, free from the power of Rome and enough militant. These lands were called by the Romans Caledonia, and their inhabitants are Caledonians.
In the 1st century AD Roman troops managed to smash the Caledonians. AT 122–126, the Romans built a chain of defensive fortifications (Val Adriana), whose goal was to protect the British provinces. Through For decades, the chain of fortifications was pushed further north. (deep into the Scottish territories). These defenses were abandoned at the beginning of the 3rd century with Septimia North.
Edinburgh – the capital of Scotland
In the early Middle Ages on the territory of Scotland was formed several kingdoms. The largest and most significant state was the kingdom of Fortriou, which was also called Scotland. AT In 843, a united Scottish kingdom was created. AT over the next centuries, it expanded to about modern boundaries. In the 9th – 10th centuries, French and Anglo-Saxon immigrants who brought English and new culture. By the end of the Middle Ages, the country was divided into the flat part, where they spoke Scottish English, and mountain, where traditions were strong and spoke Gaelic.
One of the most difficult periods in the history of Scotland was the 13th century, when in 1290 the direct branch of inheritance was stopped. King in eventually became John Balliol, who was supported by the British. AT gratitude for this new king recognized England suzevernom. After the coronation of John his authority did not recognize several Scottish nobles Also English king Edward I began to count Scotland his vassal In 1295, John spoke out against the British. In reply English monarch declared him a rebel and invaded Scotland. AT 1296, British troops defeated the Scots and the country lost its independence.
In 1297, the Scots revolted and defeated the British. AT 1298 Edward I personally led the invasion and again defeated Scots. In the future, the struggle against English domination headed by Robert I Bruce, who was crowned in 1306. In 1314 year the Scots defeated the British troops led by Edward II. After the death of Robert I, the struggle began between his son – David II and Edward Balliol. David could hold the throne, but died childless. In 1371, Robert II was crowned from the dynasty The Stuarts who ruled Scotland for the next three centuries.
In 1502, England and Scotland sign a treaty of peace, which the Scots violated in 1512. In 1560 between two countries signed a peace treaty that ended three centuries of enmity. In 1603, King of Scotland Jacob VI inherited the English throne. From this time the story begins Scotland as part of the United Kingdom.
old lock in Scotland
In the 18th – 19th centuries, Scotland thrives on trade. The Industrial Revolution turns the country into a major industrial and science Center. Meanwhile, the calls in autonomy. Industrial development has affected, to a greater extent, only the southern part of the country. North Scotland lived in poverty, so many residents emigrated in search of a better life to the United States, Canada and Australia
The industrial development of Scotland continued until the First World War. of war. After the war there was a serious decline, which intensified after end of World War II. In the 20th century, Scotland’s industry was reoriented to innovative and knowledge-intensive production. AT In 1999, parliamentary elections were held, which emphasized autonomy of the region. In 2014, a referendum was held on Scottish Independence, against which more half the population.
Historically Scotland was divided into counties, parishes, possessions, and etc. Modern administrative division of the country – 32 districts. The status of the city have only seven settlements: Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Sterling, Perth and Inverness.
The administrative division of Scotland
In regional terms, the territory of Scotland can be divided on:
- Border areas – southeastern Scotland, which is a hilly plain with beautiful old settlements destroyed by abbeys and historical in places.
- Southwestern Scotland – the picturesque rocky coast Irish Sea.
- Central Scotland is the most urbanized region of the country where most of the population lives and a huge part of the cultural heritage.
- Northeastern Scotland is a picturesque, diverse region in led by Aberdeen from the Grampian Mountains to the sandy beaches of the North seas.
- Highland Scotland and the northwest coast – severe Land with stunning nature and authentic atmosphere.
- Island Groups: Shetland Islands, Orkney Islands and Hebrides.
Over 80% of the population of Scotland are ethnic Scots. About 8% consider themselves to be British. Other large diasporas: Irish, Poles, immigrants from Asia. Scotland is spoken immediately in three languages: English, Gaelic and Scottish. Most of The population professes Christian Presbyterian sense, although a large proportion of Catholics.
Awesome nature of Scotland
Scots – a very proud nation, so do not talk to them about politics and lead parallels with England. They respect their history, the desire for independence and their very annoying nickname “Jock” or “Scotch”. The Scots are restrained, persistent, persistent, cautious and thrifty. They don’t like to express their feelings. and from the side can look gloomy and malevolent. But this only until the Scot gets to the pub.
Transport Scotland scheme
Scotland’s largest airports:
- Aberdeen Airport. It has a flight connection with the following cities: Alicante, Amsterdam, Dublin, Bergen, Copenhagen, Paris.
- Edinburgh Airport. Regular flights with the following cities: Abu Dhabi, Alicante, Barcelona, Basel, Berlin, Bratislava, Dubrovnik, Dusseldorf, Gdansk, Geneva, Krakow, Lisbon, Lyon, Madrid, Prague, Paris, Vilnius, Marseille, Nice, Munich, New York, Milan, Venice, Rennes, Reykjavik, Rome, Zurich, Toulouse, Budapest.
- Airports of Glasgow. Have a flight connection with the following cities: Alicante, Amsterdam, Berlin, Calgary, Copenhagen, Heraklion, New York, Toronto, Paris, Philadelphia, Vancouver, Girona.
No Scottish airport (except Glasgow’s Prestwick) has access to the railway. To get to the city you need use buses or taxi services.
Scotland’s rail system is quite extensive and is part of the transport system of the United Kingdom. Before most cities in the country can be reached by train from London Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, York. Should also cancel that the Scotland railways are among the most scenic in world, so the trip can also deliver aesthetic pleasure.
Ruins old castle
Buses are the cheapest way to get to Scotland, but least convenient. Also, the country has a small number freeway. Many roads (especially in the north) pretty narrow.
Cities of Scotland
The status of a city (city) in Scotland is only seven inhabited items:
- Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and its main cultural center. The city has a stunning historic center with an impressive a medieval castle soaring above it on a high rocky peak, and the striking medieval gothic architecture with which Side by side magnificent samples of modern construction.
- Glasgow is the largest city of Scotland with typical Scottish charm and gorgeous architecture. This is an example of a competent modern urban planning when in the past major the industrial center has been transformed into a popular tourist direction with preservation of historical appearance.
- Aberdeen – the capital of Northern Scotland, the largest fisherman port and center of the marine oil industry in Europe. City famous for its magnificent granite architecture.
- Dundee is the fourth largest city of Scotland, located on northeast of the country. This is a major educational and scientific Centre.
- Inverness – the northernmost city of Britain and the capital of the mountain Scotland
- Sterling – royal fortress city with stunning lock.
- Perth – the ancient royal city and former residence Scottish monarchs.
Sights of Scotland
Edinburgh Castle is one of the symbols of Scotland. Stone towers and the walls of this structure have dominated Edinburgh since the 13th century. The castle is built on a picturesque basalt rock, keeps stunning historical artifacts and offers breathtaking views of the capital Scotland Below the castle is the famous Royal Mile – historic street with lots of old brick buildings and attractions.
Lake Loch Ness
Loch Ness – one of the most beautiful and mysterious places Scotland This deep lake is world famous for its Nessie (Loch Nessk monster). 12th century castle ruins on shore are the center of local legends and stories. The castle fell victim to fire five centuries after its foundation.
Stirling Castle – one of the most beautiful medieval castles Scotland and a magnificent example of the construction of the Renaissance. Was carefully restored and furnished in late style Middle Ages.
Glenfinnan is an arched railway viaduct. It’s amazing engineering construction has become widely known thanks to a series of Harry Potter movies.
Cathedral of sv. John’s
Cathedral of sv. St John is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture, dating from 13 century. This cathedral is the most important religious edinburgh and has an interesting (slightly stern) facade. The most remarkable element of its structure is the central tower with eight arched pillars that form a semblance the crown.
Cathedral of sv. Mungo
Cathedral of sv. Mungo – medieval religious structure, which is the most significant historical monument in Glasgow. This impressive ancient building dates back to the 12th century and is a great example of Scottish gothic.
Cathedral of sv. Mahara
Cathedral of sv. Mahara is one of the main symbols of Aberdeen and a great example of Scottish gothic. This church was founded in 6th century eponymous saints. Further around christian parish grew settlement. The current cathedral was founded in 1136 and finally completed in 1552. Interior for the most part dates back to the 14th century.
Beautiful castles of Scotland
Scotland is famous for a scattering of beautiful castles.
Balmoral is a magnificent neo-baroque Victorian castle, which is the summer residence of the Queen of Great Britain. Castle was founded in the 15th century and rebuilt as a royal residence in the middle of the 19th century.
Craigievar Castle (Craigievar) – a delightful medieval 15th century castle owned by the Mortimer family. Represents a fabulous building with small conical topped towers roofs, gable gables and various decorative elements.
Kalzai Castle – a luxurious castle of the 18th century south west of Scotland.
Eileen donan (Eilean Donan)
Eilean Donan – a picturesque island with a castle of the 13th century, which was built to protect against the Normans. Located at the junction three lakes in the western part of the Scottish Highlands.
Dunrobin Castle (Dunrobin) – the majestic style castle French Renaissance and Scottish Baroque. Built in the 19th century in the north of Scotland.
Tioram – a ruined medieval castle located on picturesque lake in western scotland.
Caudor – a medieval castle in the north of Scotland, built in 15th century and Macbeth, mentioned in the tragedy of Shakespeare.
Scotland is a relatively expensive country for living and traveling. The most affordable accommodation options are hostels that can be found in cities. If you are not afraid of difficulties and lack facilities, a great option is to stay at the campsite. also in Scotland’s bed and breakfast hotels are very popular. offer an excellent authentic and welcoming atmosphere. Such hotels can be found even in remote areas.
Hotel in Scotland
It is believed that the cuisine of Scotland is rather mediocre. Is not quite right. Scottish dishes are simple, no frills, but hearty and delicious. Popular traditional food:
- Cullen Skink – nourishing and delicious smoked fish soup with cream and potatoes.
- Seafood: langoustines, oysters, scallops, crabs, salmon. Fish n Chips is very popular in Scotland – fried cod with french fries.
- Scotch beef steak.
- Pheasant baked with vegetables and a few strips bacon.
- Haggis – one of the most famous national dishes. Represents sheep insides (heart, liver and lungs), sheep chopped and baked in the stomach (now often used special packages).
- Scotch Pie – the famous Scottish meat pie.
- Scotch Egg – Hard Boiled Egg with Sausage or ham.
Scotland (especially the highlands) is famous for hundreds of brands. Scotch whiskey. This drink is proud of the Scots and one of the main souvenirs. Almost every Scottish village has your own brand. The second most popular alcoholic drink is beer (especially ale), which is measured in pints (0.568 liters). The extremely popular non-alcoholic drink is tea and Irn Bru.
Map scotch whiskey