Rome (Italy) – the most detailed information about the city with photos. The main attractions of Rome with a description, guidebooks and cards.
City of Rome (Italy)
Rome is the capital of Italy and the Lazio region, one of the most beautiful and most interesting cities in the world. The eternal city is located on the legendary seven hills on the Tiber River about 25 km from the coast of Tyrrhenian seas. Rome is the cradle of a great civilization and the center of one of the greatest empires in human history. Here on almost every there is some landmark in the street and you can easily to meet the monuments of architecture and culture, which several thousand years old. Therefore, to explore Rome for a couple of days is simply not possible.
The historic center of the city is listed as Worldwide. UNESCO heritage. In Rome, you can touch the period of antiquity and Roman Empire history: see the famous Forum, the legendary The Colosseum, the ancient Pantheon and many other monuments of antiquity and grand ruins, stroll through the narrow streets with smooth, polished with millions of feet and centuries of paving stone, sit in cozy street cafes and trattoria, visit the famous Roman squares and fountains, palaces and gardens. In addition, Rome is the center. Catholic faith: the Vatican, its museums, the square and the Cathedral of St.. Petra, Castel Sant’Angelo are also popular with tourists.
Panorama of rome
Rome has many epithets – “eternal city”, “city on seven hills”. Eternal Rome began to be called in Antiquity. Ideas about “eternity” the city carried through the millennia, despite the fall mighty Roman Empire.
Panorama of rome
Rome is called the “city on seven hills” for what historically the city is located on seven heights: the Palatine, the Capitol, Quirinal, Tseliy, Aventin, Esquiline and Viminal. First settled Palatine Hill, then the Capitol and the Quirinal.
Foundation of Rome
The founding of Rome according to a famous legend is connected with the brothers Romulus and Remus They grew up on the banks of the Tiber at the foot of the Palatin, fed by a she-wolf. It was they who founded the settlement here. Then a quarrel arose between the brothers. Romulus killed Remus, becoming the first king Of rome He also founded a fortified settlement in the Palatine the hill.
Capitol she-wolf feeds her milk on Romulus and Rem – sculpture
- Geography and climate
- Best time to visit
- Practical information
- How to get there
- Shopping and shopping
- Food and drink
- Maps and guides
- Comments and reviews
Geography and climate
Rome is located in central Italy between the Apennines and Tyrrhenian Sea. The historical center of the city is spread over seven the hills.
The climate of Rome is subtropical Mediterranean. Spring – relatively mild and rainy season. Usually cool to the middle April May already be hot. Summer is hot and dry. Autumn – warm and humid, sunny days alternate with rains that gradually become more frequent.
Rome in the snow – a phenomenon very rare
Winter, from December to February, is rather mild, given that The average temperature in January is around 7.5 ° C. At night frosts are possible. February is usually more like spring.
Best time to visit
Rome can be visited almost all year round. The only thing – in the summer the city is very hot. In late July-August, some are closed. institutions. Therefore, if you do not like the heat, it is better to come to Rome at another time.
- The population is 2.9 million people (agglomeration 4.6 million). By The population of Rome is the 4th city in the EU.
- The area is 1.3 thousand square kilometers.
- The language is Italian.
- Currency – Euro.
- Visa – Schengen.
- Time – Central European UTC +1, in summer +2.
- The modern center is Piazza Veneto, Republic and Barberini, Trevi Fountain and the Quirinale neighborhood. There are many restaurants and shops.
- Old Town – Renaissance Square, Piazza Navona, Pantheon.
- The Colosseum is the most ancient place of Rome, Capitoline Hill, in which are located the legendary amphitheater, the Forum, the ancient ruins and many museums.
- The Vatican – the Catholic capital of the world: museums, the Cathedral and the square of St. Petra, castle of sv. Angela
- North Center – Spanish Steps and Villa Borghese.
- Trastevere is a charming area south of the Vatican, on the western bank of the Tiber, the area of narrow cobbled streets and cozy squares, which served as a source of inspiration for creative people.
Administrative division of Rome
Rome is divided into 19 municipalities (municipi), 22 historic districts, 35 quarters, 6 suburbs and 53 zones.
The history of Rome is rich and unique, so to tell it need to write a whole book. Here we confine list of main historical figures and events.
The rise of Rome began in antiquity, during the royal period By tradition, there are seven kings. The first was Romulus. AT this time in Rome there are first temples (Temple of Vesta and Temple of Janus), built the famous Servius Wall.
Rome in the era of antiquity
After the Royal period, Rome became a Republic. Then began a significant expansion of the Roman state and its strengthening power: roads were laid, magnificent temples were built and palaces Developed culture, crafts, architecture, art. The Roman Republic becomes very powerful, and Rome – the center Oycumene. The central square became the famous Forum, the ruins which you can now contemplate. The growth of the state accompanied the change of Rome, which began to expand rapidly, were built new buildings and constructions.
Roman Forum Center ancient rome
The imperial period of Rome is closely connected with the personality of Gaius Julius Caesar. Caesar erects a new building of the Senate, creates a new territory for public buildings on the Champ de Mars. In this period The power of the Roman Empire increases.
In the reign of Emperor Nero, the city suffered from a strong the fire. After him, Rome rebuilt again.
The decline of Rome coincided with the fall of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century the city looted the Visigoths and Vandals.
At the beginning and middle of the 6th century in the war of Byzantium with the Ostrogoths of Rome six times passed from hand to hand. At this time, the population of the city decreased to 30-40 thousand people. Once the greatest city of the earth went into decline. The magnificent buildings slowly collapsed and plundered.
This is followed by a period of Papal authority in Rome. With its rise The center of the city became the Vatican hill with the temple of Sts. Petra. In it while the old building is easily destroyed. Survived only those buildings that were used by the local nobility or the Church.
Panorama of rome
At the beginning of the 16th century, Rome was again plundered.
In modern times, the city again became a Republic. Napoleon abolished the Papal State, although after his defeat the power of the Pope has been restored.
In 1870, the troops of the Italian kingdom occupied Rome, and he became the capital of the kingdom.
During the Second World War, Rome escaped serious destruction, although underwent German occupation.
How to get there
Rome has a modern international airport – Fiumicino, which connects the capital of Italy with the majority of large cities of Europe and the world.
Almost in the center of Rome is the main railway junction cities – Termini station, from which you can reach any point Italy.
Rome’s public transport is represented by three metro lines, trams and buses. Very well developed commuter. Tickets can be purchased at tobacco shops and public terminals. A one-time ticket costs 1.5 euros and is valid for one trip to flow 100 minutes.
Shopping and shopping
Rome is a great place to shop. Brand shops can be found in the street del Corso. Shops cheaper via del Tritone, Square Campo de Fiori and in the Pantheon area. If you need a big shopping center, that is:
- Euroma2 – 230 shops and restaurants. Line B “EUR Fermi” or “EUR Palasport”.
- Cinecittà Due
Food and drink
Italy is famous for its cuisine: lasagna, pizza, pasta and many other dishes are very tasty. In Rome, just a huge selection of restaurants and Cafe. But the main advice – avoid tourist places. Food in them often more expensive and not so good. Move a little to the side Take a look – whether the Italians are sitting in the institution. It is there that you can enjoy authentic Italian cuisine. In my experience Roman tour I can say that the most delicious food in Rome in the area of the square Campo de Fiori and Trastevere. From drinks, preferably wine, which here is just great and even in restaurants is not very expensive. Also be sure to try gelato (ice cream).
Street cafe Pantheon
Attractions in Rome a huge amount. Probably, the number of historical, cultural and architectural monuments is the most large per square meter. To study at least the main the sights of Rome need to spend not one day, but to explore this ancient city completely – you need to come here repeatedly.
The Colosseum or the Flavian Amphitheater is a symbol of the greatness of ancient Rome and the pride of the present. This is one of the most famous. attractions of the world, which is visited by 6 million tourists annually. The Colosseum is the largest amphitheater of Antiquity, which accommodated about 50,000 spectators. Surprisingly, this is a grand the building was built in just 8 years. Construction of the amphitheater It was launched in the year 72 and completed in the year 80. Colosseum used over 500 years. It held gladiator fights, executions, exhibitions of exotic animals. Despite earthquakes, looting and even the bombardment of the Colosseum still produces strong impression.
Interesting facts about the Colosseum:
- In the Middle Ages, the inhabitants of Rome used travertine, from which built an amphitheater for the construction of churches, houses and roads. Therefore, it can be called a miracle that the Colosseum is generally preserved.
- The original name “Flavian Amphitheater” was changed to Middle Ages. The name comes from the Latin word “colossal”.
- The opening of the Colosseum was accompanied by 100 day games in which killed about 2000 gladiators.
- The original amphitheater had a rich marble exterior. finish
- In order to protect the spectators in the stands from the sun – stretched a special canvas.
- Cages with animals and gladiators were under the arena.
The Roman Forum is one of the oldest places in Rome, the center of political and the religious life of the city. These legendary ruins are located between the Colosseum and Piazza Venezia. After the fall of the Empire, the Forum was forgotten, looted and buried under the ground. Excavations have been made only at the beginning of the 20th century.
In addition to the large number of temples that are on the Forum (Saturn, Venus, Romulus, Vesta, and others.), You should pay special attention to the following facilities:
- Via Sacra – the main street in ancient Rome, which connected Piazza del Campidollo with the Colosseum.
- The Arch of Titus is a triumphal arch dedicated to the victory over the Jews. It was built after the death of Emperor Titus.
- The Arch of Septimius Severus, built in 203 AD in commemoration of the third anniversary of Severus in office the emperor.
- The temple of Antoninus and Faustina, built in the second century, stands out as the best preserved temple in the Roman Forum.
- Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine – this was one of the most important buildings of the Roman Forum.
- Curia – the building of the Senate, founded by Julius Caesar.
- Fock’s Column with a height of over 13 meters, created in 608 AD in honor of the emperor of Byzantium.
Trevi Fountain – the largest and most beautiful fountain in Rome. Was built at the end point of an ancient aqueduct. Final Trevi’s appearance dates back to 1762, when after many years work on it by Niccolo Salvi, it was finalized by Giuseppe Pannini.
The Pantheon is one of the greatest domed structures in the world and one of the best preserved structures of antiquity. Was built between the ages of 25-27 AD Consul Marc Vipsanius Agrippa, son-in-law of the emperor Augustus. After several fires he was rebuilt in 126 AD under emperor adrian who commanded on the facade to knock out the following lines – “M. AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIUM FECIT “translated from Latin as” Mark Agrippa, son of Lucius, elected consul, set it up. ”
In 609, the Pantheon was consecrated as a Christian temple. it the event allowed to keep this unique building almost in original form.
The Pantheon is a true masterpiece of ancient Roman architecture and engineering. Structurally is a concrete brick rotunda with a giant 43-meter dome. It is assumed that before the dome was decorated with golden rosettes that looked like stars, but exact evidence of this is not found.
Palatine Hill is located fifty meters from the Forum. it The most ancient place of Rome. It is believed that the Italian capital was based precisely on the Palatine. In the Republican period the Roman nobility settled on the Palatine Hill and built luxurious palaces.
On the Palatine Hill you can see hundreds of impressive ruins buildings that were created for noble Romans in ancient times. Of these deserve special attention:
- The Flavian House (Domus Flavia) is a magnificent palace built in 81 BC by order of the emperor Domitian as his state and official residence.
- Libya’s house is a rather modest house that was built in 1 century BC. Is one of the best preserved buildings on the Palatine Hill. You can still see the remains mosaics and frescoes that once decorated the ceilings and walls.
- The House of Augustus is the residence of Octavian Augustus, which is all still has most of the valuable and colorful frescoes that adorn it walls.
- Farnese Gardens – designed in the middle of the 16th century on the ruins of the Palace of Tiberius. Farnese Gardens were among the first botanical gardens in Europe.
- Domitian Racecourse – it is not known for sure whether it was a stadium for conducting races or just used as a garden.
- The Palatine Museum – rarities are exhibited in this small museum, found during excavations carried out on the Palatine Hill. Expositions contain sculptures, frescoes, mosaics and others. items.
Arch of Constantine – the most beautiful, large and well preserved from the ancient triumphal arches of Rome. Built at the beginning 4th century AD and dedicated to the victory of Emperor Constantine over Maxentius at the battle of Milvia Bridge. The arch is tricuspid and made of marble. Decorated with inscriptions and bas-reliefs.
Piazza Navona is one of the most famous squares of Rome, which often called “the area of three fountains.” Was formed at the end of 15 century and retains the shape of the stadium of Domitian, which in Antiquity stood here. The stadium was built in 86 AD and was larger The coliseum. The stadium was mainly used for festivals. and sporting events. The buildings surrounding the square are built on the foundation of the ancient stands. Today, Navona Square is one of The most popular places of the capital of Italy.
Fountain of Moor on piazza navona
Piazza Navona is known for its fountains:
- The Fountain of the Four Rivers is one of the most famous and beautiful. fountains of Rome, built in the first half of the 17th century by the project Bernini Interestingly, he, like Trevi, takes water from an ancient aqueduct – Aqua Virgo. Fountain sculptural composition symbolizes the four great rivers: the Danube, the Nile, the Ganges and La Plata. The sculptures are made of white marble. Dominant sculptural The group is an Egyptian obelisk (which was actually made under Emperor Domitian and decorated the circus on the Appian Way). The height of the obelisk is more than 16 meters.
- The fountain of Moor is located in the southern part of the square. Fountain first was without sculptures. The sculpture of the Moor was made by Bernini in the 17th century, and in the 19th century – all other sculptures.
- Neptune Fountain occupies the northern part of the area. Until the 19th century, he did not possess a sculptural composition.
Directly opposite the Fountain of the Four Rivers is located Sant’Agnese in Agone is a beautiful 17th century baroque church with two the belfries of Borromini. Although originally an architect Raynaldi. The church has a lush and rich interior decoration. Dedicated to Saint Agnes, an early Christian torment.
The Plaza of Spain and the Spanish Steps are a popular tourist destination. landmark of Rome. Spanish Steps Built in the 18th Century and leads to the top of pincho hill. At the foot of the stairs is located beautiful fountain – Barcaccia.
Altar of the Fatherland (Vittoriano)
Altar of the Fatherland (Vittoriano) – one of the most controversial attractions of the Italian capital, located on square of venice. The building was built in the early 20th century and Dedicated to Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of united Italy. Inside is a museum – Risorgimento. Colossal monument has a length of 135 meters and a height of 70 meters. Vittoriano consists of The many magnificent Corinthian columns and stairs that carved from white marble. In the center is a horse sculpture Bronze Victor Emmanuel.
From Vittoriano, you can take Via del Teatro di Marcello to Cordonaty – the majestic stairs to Capitoline Square, designed by the great Michelangelo in the 16th century. In the corner of the square is the famous Capitoline Wolf – a small bronze sculpture. The sculpture depicts a she-wolf that nurses with their milk babies Romulus and Remus – the legendary founders Of rome
Castle of sv. Angela or Adrian’s mausoleum
The Castle of the Holy Angel or the Mausoleum of Hadrian – Monumental construction on the right bank of the Tiber in Adrian Park. Presents a high fortified cylindrical building. History of this The construction begins in the first half of the 2nd century AD. The emperor Adrian (literally built up a third of Rome) conceived it as tomb for themselves and their family members. The mausoleum has already been built after his death. The burial urns of Hadrian and Septimiya Sever. The last buried in it was Caracalla. In the era The papacy here was a fortress and a prison. Currently Castle St. Angelo is a museum, one of the most visited in Rome. AT the castle can be accessed by the bridge of sv. Angela is a pedestrian bridge across Tiber, decorated with statues of St. Peter and Paul and the ten angels.
In 1277, a 800-meter reinforced corridor was built, who connected the castle with the Vatican so that the pope could take refuge in fortress in case of danger. This corridor was used only by one. times – in 1527.
St. Square Petra – Vatican
The Vatican is a miniature state within Rome, the center catholic faith. If you are a connoisseur of art, then surely Visit the Vatican discount museums. They contain hundreds of unique, most valuable creations, paintings, sculptures. Vatican Museums – very popular among tourists, so there are usually long queues. Best of all, of course, visit them as part of groups.
View of the cathedral of sv. Petra from the bank of the Tiber
One of the main attractions of the Vatican is the cathedral St. Peter – the largest Christian church in the world, the main Catholic temple. This is the largest and grandest building. The Vatican. The greatest masters of that labor worked on the creation of the cathedral. time: Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, Bernini. Capacity Cathedral about 60 thousand people. The interior of the cathedral strikes with harmony proportions, and its huge size. Here are a lot of statues altars, tombstones, works of art work of outstanding masters. You can get to the cathedral absolutely free. Entrance from the square St. Petra.
Villa Borghese is the largest park in Rome and one of the largest urban parks of Europe. The state acquired the Borghese family gardens in 1901 and soon made a park of them. Villa Borghese – interesting a combination of nature and art, a place where interesting architectural elements, sculptures, monuments and fountains created at different times by famous artists and sculptures.
What is interesting here you can see:
- The Borghese Gallery is one of the most important museums in Italy. capital Cities. It presents paintings by artists such as Raphael, Titian and Caravaggio.
- The zoo contains over 1000 animals.
- Water clock Pincho 19th century.
Trastevere is one of the most pleasant for walking areas of Rome with typical italian atmosphere. This is one of the best places for lunch. or dinner in the Italian capital. Walk through the narrow paved green The streets of Trastevere will reveal hidden treasures such as the modest medieval churches, small shops with the most unusual objects or scenes of everyday life of the Romans.
Santa Maria Square in Trastevere
The center of the district is Santa Maria Square, where you can see ancient basilica and fountain.
Catacombs – an extensive network of early burial underground Christians and Jews, who belong to the 2-5 century. The catacombs were founded by Christians who did not accept pagan customs burning bodies. Therefore, to solve this problem, due to lack of places and high land prices in Rome, they decided to create these huge underground cemeteries. The catacombs have a huge the number of underground passages that make up these mazes several kilometers long, along which were dug rows of rectangular burial niches.
In Rome, there are more than sixty catacombs, consisting of hundreds of kilometers of underground passages in which there are thousands tombs Currently only five of them are open to public:
- Catacombs of San Sebastiano (Via Appia Antica, 136). These catacombs 12 kilometers long are dedicated to St. Sebastian. Work time: from Monday through Saturday from 9:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 5pm
- The Catacombs of San Callisto (Via Appia Antica, 126). Walkway network over 20 kilometers long. The tombs of San Callisto were the site burial of 16 pontiffs and dozens of Christian martyrs. Time work – from Thursday to Tuesday from 9:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 5pm
- Catacombs of Priscilla (Via Salaria, 430). They are stored some murals of great importance to the history of art and first images of the Virgin Mary. Opening hours: Sunday to Sunday from 9:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 17:00.
- Catacombs of Domitilla (Via delle Sette Chiese, 280). Discovered in 1593, these catacombs are more than 15 kilometers long. owe their name to Vespasian’s granddaughter. Opening hours – from Monday through Monday from 9:00 to 12:00 and from 14:00 to 17:00.
The market of Trajan is located opposite the Forum. Was built between 100 and 110 AD and is considered the first covered “shopping center Europe. “The complex, consisting of red brick and concrete, had Six levels in which there were up to 150 different shops and apartments.
Terme Caracalla – located near the Appian way. They are one of the largest and most impressive baths, built in the Roman Empire. A visit to the baths was a favorite activity. the Romans who regularly came here on just to maintain their hygiene, but also for social relationships. On a wide area, where the terms were located, the citizens of Rome could not only use public baths, but also devote their time to doing physical exercise, visit the library, walk around the gardens or pray to the gods. Terme Caracalla, covered with marble and decorated with valuable works of art were the most luxurious baths that were and will be built in ancient times.
Piazza del popolo Popolo
Piazza del Popolo – a large oval square in northern Rome, which existed since the time of the Roman Empire. In your here an important road leading north began. Three churches border on square but the main attraction is the obelisk from ancient Egypt. Port is located on the north side of the square. del Popolo, which lead to Via Flaminia – the road connecting Rome with the Adriatic coast.
Basilica Santa Maria in Cosmedin
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a small basilica, built in the middle ages, which houses several Christian relics (for example, the skull of St. Valentine).
Mouth of Truth
The mouth of Truth is a huge marble mask, which according to legend bites the hand of those who lied. Located in the portico Santa Maria in Cosmedin.
Circus Maximus (Massimo)
Circus Maximus – the largest stadium in Rome, located between Palatine and Aventino. It was built for chariot races. Stadium could intervene up to 300,000 viewers. Currently, the ruins of what it was once a circus of Maximus, barely preserved. Now there is only a huge terrace that repeats the shape of the stadium. it often disappointing tourists who visit it, hoping find at least the ruins.
Panorama of Rome with Janicula
Janicul is a very pleasant place for walking, which is removed from the hustle and bustle of the city, as well as an excellent observation deck. Many Janicul called the eighth hills of Rome.
Aqua Paola Fountain
Aqua Paola Fountain – a monumental marble fountain created in 17th century to celebrate the discovery of the old roman aqueduct.
Maps and guides
City Map with Landmarks Historic Center Map Tram Route Map Subway Map