Romania

Romania – the most detailed information about the country with a photo. Attractions, cities of Romania, climate, geography, population and culture.

Romania (România)

Romania is a country in South-Eastern Europe, located on north of the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered in the south with Bulgaria, on southwest with Serbia, northwest with Hungary, on northeast with Moldova (Moldavia), in the north and east with Ukraine. Romania is unitary presidential-parliamentary Republic and washed by the Black Sea. It is industrial a state with a dynamic economy and a member of the European Union with 2007

Romania is one of the most picturesque countries in Europe with amazing natural diversity, charming province and magnificent ancient cities. She represents unique historical and cultural synthesis of the Balkans and the Western Europe, which gives it such a contrast and color. The most a popular tourist region (except Bucharest) is the mysterious Transylvania that is associated with the legends of Dracula, has many ancient Saxon villages and magnificent locks.

Flag of Romania Flag of romania

  1. Useful information
  2. Geography and nature
  3. Climate
  4. Best time to visit
  5. Story
  6. Administrative division
  7. Population
  8. Transport
  9. Cities of Romania
  10. sights
  11. Accommodation
  12. Kitchen

Useful information about Romania

  1. The population is more than 19.5 million people.
  2. Area – 238 391 km ².
  3. The language is Romanian.
  4. The currency is leu.
  5. Time – UTC +2, in summer +3.
  6. Visa – Schengen (although Romania has not fully complied with all requirements of the same agreement).
  7. The capital is Bucharest.
  8. Car traffic is right hand.
  9. Romania is one of the most religious countries in the world. About 90% of the population professes Orthodoxy.
  10. All purchases in Romania are best done in national currency. Also, you should always have cash with you, because bank cards are not accepted everywhere.
  11. The best places to shop are farmers’ markets and trade fairs.

Geography and nature

Romania is the largest country of Southeast Europe and located in the north of the Balkans. The relief has a uniform combination mountains, hills and plains. The largest mountain system are the Carpathians, which stretched across the country from the border with Ukraine to the border with Serbia. The largest point of Romania – the mountain Moldovianu (2544 m). The largest river is the Danube, which forms natural border with Serbia and Bulgaria.

Autumn in Romania. Bran Castle Autumn in Romania. Bran Castle

Romania is famous for its magnificent nature. Almost 50% of its territory are natural landscapes. About 5% of the area of ​​Romania is nature reserves and national parks. The country has one of the largest Europe’s areas of pristine forests, which occupy almost 30% of its territory. There are many wild animals in the forests, including 50% the entire European population of brown bears (not including Russia) and 20 % of the entire wolf population.

Climate

Romania has a temperate continental climate with a clear pronounced seasons. The climate is characterized by relatively cold in winter with frequent fogs and snowfalls, as well as warm and some rainy summer. On the Black Sea coast winters are milder with rare negative temperatures.

Winter in Romania Winter in Romania

Best time to visit

The best time to visit Romania is the warm season (the period from April to September).

Story

In ancient times (about 2 thousand years BC) the territory of Romania settled Dacians (Thracian-Phrygian tribes), which by the 3rd century before AD formed a kingdom that flourished in two centuries. In the 7th century BC on the Black Sea coast arose Greek the colony. At the beginning of our era (the end of the 1st century – the beginning of the 2nd century) the territory of Romania was conquered by the Romans. By the end of the 3rd century Dacians pushed the Roman Empire beyond the Danube. In the 4-5th century, Dacia walked hordes of barbarians: Goths, Huns, Vandals. In the 6th century the territory of Romania Slavs began to settle.

Romanian landscapes. Fog in the Carpathians Romanian landscapes. Fog in the Carpathians

In the Middle Ages, on the territory of Romania, three Principality: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. In the early period in Transylvania began to settle the Hungarians. In the 11th century, this principality entered into the composition of the Hungarian kingdom, while maintaining a broad autonomy. In the 16th century, Transylvania gained independence and maintained its until 1711. In 1526, Hungarian troops were defeated. the Ottomans. From this period begins the period of the Ottoman vassalage Empire, which lasted until the 19th century.

Provincial Romania Provincial Romania

The 17th century in Romania is characterized by a series of strife. At the beginning 18th century Wallachia and Moldavia make an alliance with Russia with the aim of rid of Ottoman domination, but this war ended for them unsuccessfully. The Romanian National Revival Movement began at Transylvania at the end of the 18th century and embraced the entire Carpathian Mountains, inspiring unification of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 and thus creating modern Romania.

The capital of Romania - Bucharest Capitals of Romania – Bucharest

In 1881, based on the union of the Romanian principalities, The Kingdom of Romania is formed. At the beginning of the First World War Romanians were neutral. But in 1916 they performed on side of the Entente. As a result, the state included Transylvania and Bessarabia. During the Second World War, Romania was an ally of Germany. After her graduation was formed socialist republic. In 1965, came to power in Romania Nicholas Ceausescu, whose regime was overthrown in 1989 year

Administrative division

In the administrative-territorial plan, Romania is divided into 8 regions, which in turn are divided into 41 countries and 1 municipality (Bucharest).

Administrative division Administrative division

Regions of Romania:

  • Transylvania is the most famous region of Romania, which It is famous for the magnificent atmosphere of history and mysticism. This is an area dark forests, snowy Carpathian peaks, wonderful medieval castles and ancient cities.
  • Banat is the most western Romanian province, which is part of the eponymous historical region. Known beautiful cities with baroque architecture, pretty province and huge woodlands in the eastern part.
  • Oltenia or Wallachia is a region in the south-west of Romania with impressive old monasteries, caves and resorts along picturesque mountains.
  • South Bukovina – picturesque hills in the northeast Romania.
  • Maramures is the most northern region located on the territory Carpathians. Known for its traditional wooden churches and beautiful mountain landscape.
  • Crisana is a region in northwestern Romania along the border with Hungary. Famous for its numerous historical sights and wonderful medieval legacy.
  • Dobrudja is a historical region including the Black Sea coast and the Danube Delta. Known for the ruins of ancient greek and Roman cities, as well as resorts.
  • Muntenia or Great Wallachia – a historic region in the south Romania, including the city of Bucharest.

Population

Ethnically, 90% of the population is Romanian. The second place is occupied by the Hungarians, who live in Romania more than 1 million people In the third place are the Roma, whose diaspora has number about 600 thousand people. Other large ethnic Groups: Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Russians. Official language is romanian. Although about 7% of the population also speak Hungarian.

Sibiu City in Transylvania Sibiu city in Transylvania

Romanians are hospitable, religious, peaceful and non-conflicting (especially for the province).

Transport

Romania has excellent transport accessibility thanks to location at the junction of the Balkans and Europe. Largest international airports are located in Bucharest, Timisoara, Cluj. Romania has regular air service with cities of Germany, Great Britain Spain, Italy, Greece, France, Russia, Ukraine, Belgium and other European countries.

On the streets of Bucharest On the streets Bucharest

By train you can get to Romania from Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul, Chisinau, Moscow, Kiev. The country has a dense railway network, which connect almost all major cities. It should be noted that Romanian railways are not in very good condition and have a low speed of movement. At the same time the train is still most convenient means of transportation in the country.

Cities of Romania

Bucharest Bucharest

  • Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its economic, political and cultural center. Has an interesting a synthesis of medieval, neoclassical and modern architecture.
  • Brasov is a historic city in the southeast of Transylvania, which is known for its charming medieval center and close location to Bran Castle.
  • Cluj is the capital of Transylvania and the largest city in this region. It is a major center of the Romanian economy and education.
  • Constanta is the main port of the Black Sea in Romania and one of largest commercial centers of the country.
  • Iasi is the fourth most populated city in Romania. it one of the largest economic and cultural centers of the state, as well as the historical capital of the Moldavian principality.
  • Sibiu is one of the most beautiful cities of Transylvania with many historical monuments and magnificent medieval architecture.
  • Sighisoara is a beautiful historic town built around The last inhabited medieval citadel in Europe.
  • Oradea is the capital of the Krishana region, rich in beautiful buildings and historical monuments in the style of rococco, baroque and epoch Renaissance.
  • Suceava – the main city of Bukovina and the medieval capital Moldavian principality.
  • Timisoara is the largest city in the Banat region and is industrial the capital of Romania.

Timisoara Timisoara

Sights of Romania

The sights of Romania are a great collection. monuments of history, culture and architecture, as well as remarkable natural objects. The country has a rich medieval heritage, including stunning castles, ancient churches, beautiful old ones cities and pretty villages. One of the most interesting regions Romania is Transylvania, located in the central part country. She claims to be a unique cultural and architectural heritage, being home to nearly 200 Saxon villages, churches and fortifications built between the 13th and 15th centuries. Seven of the fortified Saxon churches are unique monuments of the past and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Bran Castle Bran Castle

Bran Castle – one of the most famous sights Romania owes its fame to the myth of Dracula created by Bram Stocker based on a real historical figure (Prince Vlad Impaler). This magnificent structure is built on a high cliff and surrounded by a halo of secrets and legends. The castle was built in the 14th century on place of the medieval citadel of the Teutonic Knights of the early 13th century. Narrow winding stairs lead through many wooden rooms, many of which are connected by underground passages. They are stored wonderful collections of furniture, weapons and armor 14-19 century.

Bertana Fortress Church Bertanskaya fortress church

The fortified churches of Transylvania are magnificent monuments. Middle Ages included in the list of World Heritage sites. They were built between the 13th and 16th centuries by German colonists for protect valuable goods and food during long siege.

The most interesting fortified churches:

  • Bertana Fortress Church – one of the most impressive medieval buildings of Transylvania. This is a fortified citadel 15 century is located in the center of the village on a hill and is surrounded vineyards.
  • Kalnik fortress church is one of the most impressive defensive structures in the region. Was built in 13th century and endured several Ottoman sieges.
  • Fortified Church in Chisnadie – originally Romanesque 12th century basilica, which was fortified in the 15th century to protect the local Saxon population from the Ottoman raids.
  • Fortress Christian Church – Medieval Church in Gothic style with two rows of fortress walls and towers.
  • The fortified church in Darzhiu was originally built in Romanesque style in the 14th century and then rebuilt in the Gothic style and strengthened two centuries later.
  • Harman church-fortress dates back to the 13th century. It has powerful walls and bastions that protect massive towers.
  • The prejmer fortress church is the largest fortified church in Southeastern Europe, built in the early 13th century by the Teutonic knights.
  • Sashiz fortified church – magnificent gothic a structure that dates back to the 15th century.
  • The church-fortress of Viskrae – one of the oldest fortified Churches of Transylvania, founded in the 12th century.

Pelesh Peles

Peles is a masterpiece of German Renaissance architecture and one of The most beautiful castles in Europe. It was built in the 19th century in a picturesque terrain at the foot of the mountains Bucegi.

Fortress Rasnov Rasnov fortress

Rasnov fortress – magnificent medieval Teutonic citadel 14th century, built in a strategic location along the path connecting Transylvania and Wallachia.

Fagaras Fagaras

Fagaras – one of the largest fortifications Transylvania The fortress was built at the beginning of the 14th century. older wooden structure burned Tatars.

Corwin Corwin

Corvin – the largest medieval Gothic castle of Romania, built in the 14th century on the site of the former Roman camp. This is one of the most stunning fortresses of Transylvania, which is preserved in excellent condition.

Black Church in Brasov Black church in Brasov

The Black Church in Brasov is the main Gothic monument of Romania and the largest church between Vienna and Istanbul. Built between 1385 and 1477 by the German community. The black church is named because of the fire, after which its walls are blackened.

Parliament Parliament

Parliament is a huge monumental building in Bucharest, built during the time of the Ceausescu regime. This is one of the biggest facilities in the world, which has more than 3,000 rooms.

Scarisoara Scarisoara

Skarisoara is one of the largest ice caves in Europe, located in the Apuseni mountains at an altitude of 1165 meters.

Sighisoara Sighisoara

Sighisoara is a wonderful historical city that grew up around the medieval citadel. Is the subject of the World UNESCO heritage and is considered the birthplace of Vlad Tepes.

Painted Churches of Moldova Painted churches of moldavia

Painted Churches of Moldova – Orthodox churches and monasteries on Eastern Romania, built between the 15th and 16th centuries and painted magnificent frescoes.

Yassky Palace of Culture Yassky Palace cultures

The Iasi Palace of Culture is one of the most iconic buildings in Romania with high clock tower. It was built in the 19th century in style. neogothic

Accommodation

Finding accommodation in Romania is very easy. With the growth of its tourist attractiveness is growing and the number of offers. The best way – book a suitable hotel through popular booking networks. Interestingly, in Romania, bed and breakfasts are priced at more expensive than two or three star hotels. At the same time they (hotels without rating) are often more modern and even more comfortable.

Kitchen

Romanian cuisine is famous for its delicious dishes and is a synthesis Balkan and Austrian culinary traditions. Also Romania famous for its rich traditions of winemaking and brewing.

Wine regions Wine regions. Source – Vineyards.com

Traditional dishes:

  • mamaliga – corn porridge (analogue of Italian polenta).
  • bulz – corn porridge with cheese, bacon and sour cream.
  • zacusca – does not require translation :).
  • tochitura is a type of stew.
  • mici – fried meat (traditional sausages) in sauce with corn porridge.
  • ciorba de burta – white sour chopped soup meat.
  • ciorba taraneasca – soup, similar to borscht.
  • pasca – chocolate or cheese cake.
  • saratele – salty sticks.
  • pandispan – cake with sour cherries.
  • cozonac – christmas or easter cake
  • covrigi – hot pretzels.
  • langoşi – hot dough stuffed with cheese.
  • gogoşi – donut.

Most restaurants in Romania, especially in the provinces, serve Romanian food only.

Video

Romania on the map

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