Greece – the most detailed information about the country with a photo. Sights, cities of Greece, climate, geography, population and culture.
Greece is a country in southern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. The country is washed by the waters of the Aegean Sea in the east, the Ionian on west Mediterranean in the south. Greece is bordered by Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey. Is unitary parliamentary a republic whose state religion is Orthodoxy. The population speaks Greek.
Greece is known for its wonderful nature, fascinating history and rich culture. The country is considered a cradle civilization, the birthplace of democracy and philosophy, mathematics and physics, and also the Olympic Games. Ancient archaeological sites, rich cultural heritage, mild climate and sandy beaches make Greece one of the main tourist destinations Europe.
Interestingly, the official name of the state is Hellas The Greeks themselves use the word “Greece”, which has Latin roots, only in communication with foreigners
Flag of greece
- Useful information
- Geography and nature
- Best time to visit
- Administrative division
- Cities of Greece
Useful information about Greece
- The official language is Greek.
- Religion – Orthodoxy.
- The population is 10.7 million people.
- The area is 131 957 km².
- Currency – Euro.
- Time – UTC +2, in summer +3.
- The capital is Athens.
- Public holidays: January 1 – New Year, January 6 – Baptism, March 25 – Independence Day, May 1 – Labor Day, 15 August – Assumption of the Virgin Mary, October 28 – the day of Ohi, December 25-26 – Christmas. Religious holidays: clean Monday – for 41 days before Easter, Easter, Pentecost – on the 50th day after Easter.
- Electrical network – 230V (50Hz).
- Visa – Schengen.
- Greece is a safe country. The greatest danger is theft and fraud.
Geography and nature
Greece is located in the south of the Balkan Peninsula. A country It is washed by the Mediterranean Sea, in particular: the Ionian, Aegean and Libyan Seas, which are part of its waters. 20% the territory of Greece is located on numerous islands.
Geographically, the country’s territory can be divided into three parts:
- Continental Greece (Greek Macedonia, Thrace, Thessaly, central part of the country).
- Peloponnese – a large peninsula occupying the southern part The balkans.
- Islands of the Aegean Sea (Crete, Evia).
Mediterranean Sea in Greece
The relief of Greece is quite diverse. Mountains occupy about 25% its territory. The highest point – the legendary Olympus (2917 m).
The fauna of Greece is not very rich. On the territory of the country preserved quite a few wild animals. The most common are: hares, badgers, porcupines, turtles, numerous snakes and lizards. Also there are foxes, bears, lynxes, boars. Flora of Greece is typical for Mediterranean: olive, cypress, plane trees, etc.
Climate is warm in most parts of Greece Mediterranean with hot summers and mild winters. In the mountains and foothills – temperate and alpine.
Best time to visit
The best time to visit Greece will depend on the purpose of the rest. The beach season begins in May. At most resorts sea warms up to 21-22 ° C. The hottest months are July and August. The sea water during this period is 25-28 ° C. The most comfortable season for Beach holiday – September. During the day it is not so hot, but the water is so as warm as summer. To explore the richest cultural and the historical heritage of Greece is perfect March and April.
Traces of man in the territory of Greece date back to the Paleolithic era. In the third millennium BC Minoan originated in Crete. civilization, which subsequently spread to the continent. AT this period there are early states, writing, develop crafts, navigation, trade. In place of the Minoan civilization Hellas and Mycenaean arrives. Mycenaean culture was destroyed the invasion of the Dorian tribes. This also led to the decline of the early Greek cities and loss of writing.
Knossos palace in Crete
After the invasion of the Dorians, Greek culture began to develop. almost from scratch. The next period in the history of ancient Greece is name Polisny. In the 8-6th century BC, legendary city-states – policies, as well as Greek colonies throughout Mediterranean and even on the Black Sea. The heyday of ancient Greece fell on 5-4 century BC This period in history is called classic. It ended with the rise of Macedonia and the loss independence policies.
Ancient Greek civilization is called Ancient Greece. It is considered the cradle of all Western civilization. The Greeks themselves already then they called their country Hellas, and themselves Hellenes.
Ruins of Sparta
After the defeat of the united army of the policies, Corinthian union led by Macedonia. Begins a new period of Greek stories – Hellenistic. The beginning of his campaigns are Alexander. Macedonian, and the end – the conquest of the Hellenistic State of Rome. Interestingly, after the conquest of Greece Macedonia has adopted its culture. Alexander himself was great fan of greek civilization so greek culture spread to all the conquered countries.
The Romans owned the Greek territories from the 1st century BC. until 3 century AD Many Roman emperors admired the culture of Greece and much of it was borrowed. In the 1st century AD here is the beginning spread Christianity. In 324, Emperor Constantine made the capital of the Roman Empire Constantinople. Later arose Byzantium, and Greece became its part. In the 13th century, Constantinople was taken by the crusaders. Greek territory was divided into zones influences between western european states. In 1453 Byzantium fell under the onslaught of the Ottomans, and Greece was occupied Ottoman Empire.
Greece gained its independence in 1830 after long national war of liberation. During Balkan wars state even increased its territory. After World War I Greece entered the war with Turkey led by Ataturk, which ended in 1923. In 1940, Italy demanded from the state to provide a bridgehead for the troops. Greece She answered “no” and was occupied by German troops until 1944. Failure of the Nazis country celebrates October 28 as the day Ohi.
After the Second World War, monarchy was restored in Greece, which was overthrown during a military coup in 1967. AT 1980 Greece joined NATO, and a year later European Union.
Greece is currently divided into 7 decentralized administrations and the autonomous monastic state of the mountain Athos.
Administrative division of Greece:
- Attica is the administrative center of the city of Athens.
- Macedonia – Thrace – the administrative center of the city Thessaloniki.
- Epirus and Western Macedonia – the administrative center of the city Yanina
- Thessaly and Central Greece – the administrative center of the city Larisa.
- Peloponnese, Western Greece and Ionia – the administrative center city of Patras.
- Aegean Islands – the administrative center of the city Piraeus.
- The island of Crete is the administrative center of the city of Heraklion.
93% of the population of Greece is ethnic Greeks. They speak Greek and profess Orthodoxy. Large ethnic Groups: Albanians, Turks, Macedonian Slavs, Aromane, Gypsies. Themselves Greeks are polite, religious, hospitable and lazy. They are not very they love to work, but they love recreation and leisure. Greeks very seriously relate to politics and sports, value their culture and history. They also very sensitive to the issue of Macedonia and relations with Turkey Therefore, in conversations it is better to avoid disputes on these topics. It is also better not to raise the topic that Greece is Eastern Europe. or typical Balkan country. In conversation, the Greeks can do a lot gesticulating.
The largest airport in Greece is located in Athens. Him passenger traffic is more than 20 million people. Other large international airports are located in Thessaloniki, Heraklion, Corfu, Rhodes. The largest national carriers are Olympic Airlines and Aegean Airlines. Also Easy Jet fly to Greece (London, Berlin, Paris, Milan), SkyEurope (Vienna, Bratislava, Prague, Budapest and Krakow) and many others.
The largest railway junction are Thessaloniki, from where they go trains to Budapest, Istanbul, Sofia, Bucharest. By bus to Greece can be reached from many major cities in southern Europe as well Bratislava, Prague and Munich. Most popular car routes is a trip by car to Italy and further by ferry through the Adriatic. You can also get to Greece from Venice, Trieste, Bari, Ancona.
Cities of Greece and popular destinations
Athens – the capital of Greece, the largest city in the country, its economic, cultural and financial center. Considered a cradle the classical period of the ancient Greek state and the entire western civilization. The appearance of the city was influenced by the ancients. Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Ottomans. Interestingly, after the decline in Middle Ages by 1830, Athens was a small provincial village until they were chosen as the capital of an independent Greek of the state.
Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece and the largest in central macedonia. Considered the cultural capital countries with lots of festivals, bright events and rich cultural life. Thessaloniki – an ancient city with many artifacts Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman past. Ancient byzantine churches and historic center are included in the list of World UNESCO heritage.
Kerkyra is a city on the island of Corfu, the historical center of which included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Some centuries it belonged to the Venetians, therefore, is famous for its elegant Italian architecture, Venetian fortresses and beautiful the streets.
Nafplion is one of the most beautiful coastal cities in the country located in the east of the Peloponnese peninsula. This is the first capital independent greece with a beautiful promenade and an old town with neoclassical mansions.
Patras is the third largest city in Greece and the “gateway” to Italy. Located in the west of the Peloponess Peninsula. Patras is an ancient city founded in the 6th century BC Unfortunately, from antiquities preserved only Odeon.
Heraklion – the capital of Crete and one of the oldest cities Greece Here you can touch the antiquities of Minoan civilization, see the legendary ruins of the Palace of Knossos, underground labyrinths where the mythical minotaur lived, as well as Byzantine churches and Venetian fortifications.
Volos is the sixth largest city in Greece, a major industrial center and port. Located at the foot of the legendary Pelion and famous for interesting ancient landmarks – ruins most ancient acropolis and neolithic settlement.
Santorini or Thira – an island in the Aegean Sea, part of Cyclades archipelago. Is one of the most beautiful and romantic places of Greece. This volcanic island is known for its white houses, unique beaches, luxury resorts and wine.
Rhodes – one of the largest Greek islands, part of Dodecanese archipelago. Be sure to visit the city of the same name, which is surrounded by impressive fortifications built by knights St. John in the 14th century.
Crete – the largest island of Greece, which is famous for its magnificent beaches, impressive natural landscapes and traces of ancient civilizations.
Mykonos is the most glamorous island of Greece with many gorgeous hotels, expensive restaurants and sandy beaches. Very popular with celebrities.
Sights of Greece
The Acropolis is a symbol of Greece and one of the most famous monuments. ancient greek civilization. Represents high rocky a hill located right in the heart of modern Athens. Acropolis crowned with three ancient temples that date back to the 5th century BC. The main gem of this archaeological site is the Parthenon. – a magnificent ancient Greek temple, consisting of 58 columns and dedicated to the goddess Athena. Nearby are other antique sights – ancient agora (market square), roman Forum and Temple of Zeus.
Knossos – an ancient city on the territory of Crete, center Minoan civilization and one of the most significant archaeological objects of Greece. Known for the ruins of a huge ancient palace, built in the second millennium BC According to the myths here was the labyrinth of the minotaur.
Delphi is an ancient Greek city at the foot of Mount Parnassus and an important religious center of ancient Greece. Known as location the oracle of Apollo. Represents the ruins of numerous temples, a theater and a stadium built between the 8th century BC 2 century AD The adjacent archaeological museum contains all the most interesting finds.
Olympia is one of the most famous archaeological sites. Greece, the place where the first Olympic Games were held. This The ancient city is located in the western part of the Peloponnese and is known for the ruins of the ancient stadium, the temples of Zeus and Hera. In archaeological The museum contains many interesting ancient artifacts.
Epidaurus – the ancient Greek city in the north-eastern part Peninsula Peloponess. Known for the ruins of the temple of Asclepius and the ancient Theater, built in the 4th century BC. The theater is very preserved OK. He is known for his acoustics and is still used for speeches.
Temple of Poseidon
Temple of Poseidon – the ruins of an ancient Greek temple on the southernmost the tip of the peninsula of Attica 70 km from Athens. This building was built in the 5th century BC Moreover, the first temple was destroyed the Persians. According to myths, it was in this place that King Aegey jumped into the sea, when he thought that his son Theseus was killed.
Delos is the mythical place where Artemis and Apollo were born. AT ancient times, the island was considered sacred. Now it is a museum under open-air where you can look at ancient greek ruin.
Mount Athos is a peak in northeastern Greece, which is one of the most significant Orthodox shrines. According to legend in 1949 AD the ship on which the Virgin Mary sailed to the mountain moored. She is so was amazed at the beauty of this place that asked God to give it to lot Since then, the mountain is called Holy and is considered to be earthly. lot of the Virgin Mary. Represents a huge monastic a complex that holds many Christian shrines
Meteora monasteries – a complex of Orthodox monasteries in northwest of Thessaly, built on the tops of the picturesque sandstone cliffs. This is one of the most striking. attractions of Greece, which is the object of the World UNESCO heritage. According to the scientists on the tops of the rocks from the 14th to the 16th century 24 monasteries were built. Only 6 have survived to our time. monasteries.
Monemvasia is a medieval Byzantine fortress located in southeastern Peloponnese. Built in the 6th century and used by the Byzantines, the Venetians and the Ottomans.
Zagorokhoriya – a region in the north-west of Greece, which is known beautiful landscapes and charming old stone villages (there are 46). One of the main attractions This region is the gorge of Vikos.
Patmos – a large old monastery of St. John the Divine Patmos Island. It is believed that here (in the cave) John wrote a book The Apocalypse.
Archaeological objects on the map
Greece – one of the most popular countries in the world, included in the TOP-20 in the world by tourist traffic. Here you can find a huge amount options for staying from expensive hotels and luxury villas to small modern hotels and budget hostels. Cost of accommodation and housing deals are completely dependent on the season Popularity of a place (resort). The highest season is July – September.
Greek cuisine is a synthesis of traditional culinary traditions with noticeable Italian and Turkish influences. Traditional Greek cuisine is a variety of vegetables, cereals and herbs, Fish and seafood. One of the main ingredients is olive oil and tomato paste. Any meal accompanies Bread and Wine.
- Gyros – Greek shawarma.
- Souvlaki – small kebabs.
- Dzadziki – finely chopped cucumbers, dill or mint with adding olive oil, garlic and yogurt.
- Greek salad – a mixture of tomatoes, cucumbers, feta cheese and onions with adding olives, green pepper and oregano, seasoned olive oil.
- Grilled octopus.
- Moussaka – Baked puff with eggplants stuffed meat, tomatoes and white sauce.
- Tiropita – cheesecake.
- Saganaki – fried cheese.
- Stifado – beef stew in sauce.
- Spetsofai – stewed sausages with peppers and tomatoes.
- Galaktobureko – quiche.
- Frappe – cold coffee with milk and sugar.
- Local wine produced in Santorini, Crete and Peninsula Peloponess.
- Ouzo – Greek anise brandy.
- Rakia – grape vodka, analogue of Italian grappa.
- Coffee and cold tea.
- Beer – Mythos and Alpha.