United Kingdom – the most detailed information about the country with a photo. Attractions, cities in the UK, climate, geography, population and culture.
- 1 United Kingdom – United Kingdom
- 2 Useful information about the UK
- 3 Geography and nature
- 4 Climate
- 5 Best time to visit
- 6 Story
- 7 Administrative division
- 8 Population
- 9 Transport
- 10 Cities of Great Britain
- 11 Great Britain Attractions
- 12 Accommodation
- 13 Kitchen
- 14 Video
- 15 United Kingdom on the map
United Kingdom – United Kingdom
Great Britain is a state in northwestern Europe, located on the island of the same name and also occupying the northern part of the island is Ireland and many smaller archipelagoes. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom UK and Northern Ireland. Great Britain is one of leading states of the world, which is a parliamentary monarchy. The country has a land border with Ireland and sea borders with France, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Portugal (Gibraltar), Spain (Gibraltar), Iceland, Belgium and the Faroe Islands. UK territory It is washed by the seas of the Atlantic Ocean: Northern, Irish, Celtic and Hebrides.
Great Britain is one of the most popular tourist destinations. directions in the world. This small country has an exciting history and rich cultural traditions. Historical monuments here found at almost every turn: from prehistoric Neolithic and Roman Empire buildings to beautiful old castles and atmospheric medieval cities. Uk has wonderful natural landscapes and picturesque province, which retains its historical character and traditional way of life over several centuries.
Flag Great Britain
- Useful information
- Geography and nature
- Best time to visit
- Administrative division
- Cities of Great Britain
Useful information about the UK
- The population is more than 66 million people.
- The area is 243,809 km2.
- The official language is English. Also regionally distributed Welsh, Irish, Scottish (Gaelic) and Cornish languages.
- Currency – pound sterling.
- Time – UTC ± 00: 00, in the summer UTC +1.
- The UK is not a party to the Schengen Agreement. Visa can be obtained by personally visiting an accredited visa centers that are located in Moscow, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don, Yekaterinburg.
- The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is the nominal head of state. Actually The country is governed by a bicameral parliament headed by prime minister who is usually the party leader majority in the House of Commons (lower house elected by the people). With This Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have their own elected bodies that have wide autonomy and powers
- State and national holidays: January 1 – New Year, Good Friday (Friday before Easter), Easter Monday (right after Easter), early May day off (first Monday May), spring day off (last Monday of May), summer day off (last Monday of August), December 25 – Christmas, December 26 is Boxing Day.
- The UK has left-hand car traffic. Expensive free, with the exception of a few large bridges, tunnels and toll motorway M6. Motorways in the UK denoted by white letters on a blue background. On the roads are the following limitations: 70 mph (115 km / h) – motorways, 60 mph (100 km / h) – roads with a single carriageway outside inhabited points, 30 mph (50 km / h) – in settlements. Big cities Not very comfortable for car traffic. Better to leave the car in the suburbs in special parking lots, and in the center to get to cheap buses.
- In most restaurants, service charges are included in the bill. If this is not the case, then it will be good practice to leave 10% of the amount. accounts
- Great Britain is generally quite a safe country. Although The British are known in Europe as hooligans. Better avoided neighborhoods of noisy pubs and drunken companies. Also british furious football fans, so give up football paraphernalia (for example, wearing a Liverpool football club shirt Manchester would not be a good idea).
- The voltage of the electrical network is 230 V, 50 Hz.
Geography and nature
The state is located in the British Isles (UK, Ireland, as well as a number of neighboring smaller islands and archipelagoes). The territory of the country is washed by the Atlantic ocean, including the Northern, Irish, Celtic and Hebrides by the seas. The English Channel separates the UK from France.
Great Britain has a very diverse relief, although a large part of its territory is plain and lowland. Geomorphology formed by tectonic processes and glaciations. On Northwest are the Cumberland and Pennine mountain ranges, in the southwest – the hills of Exmoor and Dartmoor, in Scotland – North Highland and Grampian Mountains, where The highest point of the country (Bern Nevis). Pretty mountainous terrain has a wales. In Northern Ireland, the Morne massif stands out.
Coast Great Britain
Britain’s largest river is the Severn. Other large rivers: Thames (England), Tay (Scotland), Bann (Northern Ireland), Towy (Wales). The largest lakes: Lough Neagh (Northern Ireland), Loch Lomond (Scotland), Windermere (England) and Bala Lake (Wales). The territory of Great Britain is permeated with a dense network of channels that were dug during the industrial revolution.
Once the territory of the country was covered with forests. Now they occupy only 10% of the area. 55% of the UK is occupied agricultural land (mainly pastures).
River Thames in London
Great Britain has a temperate maritime climate, moderated by warm Gulf Stream. The climate of the country is characterized by mild winters and warm summer. For a year quite a lot of rain falls. weather in The UK is often very changeable even during the day. In winter, temperatures rarely fall below zero, although frost and snowfalls South-westerly winds often bring cold and damp. The western part of the country is more rainy than the eastern.
Best time to visit
The best time to visit the UK can be called pretty conditionally. Misty Albion has unpredictable weather that often violates the laws of statistics and long-term observations. Most The high season is July and August. During this period, the country comes more than 1 million tourists, which affects the prices and availability attractions. The best time to visit Britain, traditionally considered May, June and September. Wherein Wales is best visited in the summer, and Scotland in late spring and early in the fall.
It is estimated that 30,000 were settled in the UK years ago in the Paleolithic era. Before the invasion of the Romans, the islands were inhabited. Celtic Tribes: Britons and Geels (Ireland). In 43 AD the romans conquered southern britain. The Roman Empire ruled by these territories of about 4 centuries. Later in the UK invaded Germanic Anglo-Saxon tribes who assimilated with the Celts. In the 10th century, the Britons and the Anglo-Saxons formed the kingdom of England. Northwest Gels Britain united in the 9th century with the Picts in the kingdom Scotland.
The origin of the modern name of the state goes back to 2 century AD and to Claudius Ptolemy. In his writings he calls the largest island is “Great Brittany”, and Ireland, respectively, “Little Britain”. Ptolemy later describes the islands as “Alvion.” (later transformed into Albion), Ivernia and Mona (Maine). AT Albion later fell into disuse and the Romans began to call its province of Great Britain. Officially this name of the state was legalized in 1604 by king james Vi.
In the 11th century, England, Wales and Ireland were conquered by the Normans, who brought a different culture and feudal system. Despite their enormous influence on cultural traditions and language, the Normans with time assimilated with the Britons and gels. Further the kings of England was conquered by Wales. Scotland almost everything The Middle Ages maintained independence, which was the cause of many interstate conflicts. In the 14th – 15th centuries the British crown seriously claimed the French throne, which was the reason protracted Hundred Years War.
In 1536, England annexed Wales and concluded a union. with Ireland. The 16th century in Britain is also characterized Reformation, during which Protestantism is established. In 1604 England, Scotland and Ireland were united by the Scottish monarch Jacob VI, who inherited the crown of the two kingdoms. AT In the middle of the 17th century, civil war broke out in the country, which led to the overthrow of the monarchy. Although pretty quickly the monarchy was restored. True, the leading role in governing the country has become play parliament. The end of the 17th century is characterized by the development of military relics of England. Kingdom becomes one of the leading European powers with the strongest fleet in the world. Also this period characterized by geographical discoveries and conquests overseas territories around the world.
In 1707, as a result of the union of England and Scotland, it was officially The Kingdom of Great Britain is formed. In the 18th century, a new state actually became a European superpower, rendering a huge influence on culture and science. UK is leading the economic and political center of the world until the mid-20th century often playing the role of world arbiter. In 1800 it was formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In the 19th century Britain owned vast areas of colonies, among which The main asset was India (after the declaration of independence USA). The state also controlled China, Argentina and some other countries.
In 1917, Great Britain sided with the Entente Triple Alliance, led by Germany. Victory in war kingdom was given very difficult. Although the state has received permanent membership in the League of Nations and the rights to the German and Ottoman the colony. In 1921 there was a branch of Ireland. In 1939 Britain entered the Second World War, after which the country remained in dire straits and with a large debt to the United States. After that, the kingdom actually lost its superpower status and became follow the foreign policy of the United States. Also after World War II Britain lost almost all of its the colony. In 1993, the United Kingdom became part of European Union. In 1997, the UK lost the last colony – Hong Kong. In 2017, as a result of the referendum, the United Kingdom announced withdrawal from the EU.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has quite complicated and complicated administrative division:
- England – the largest administrative and political part UK, which occupies more than 80% of the territory. Consists of 9 regions, 6 metropolitan counties, 28 non-metropolitan county and 55 unitary units.
- Wales – occupies the mountainous western part of the UK. It consists of 9 counties, 3 cities and 10 county cities.
- Scotland – the administrative and political part of the UK located in the north of the island. It consists of 32 districts.
- Northern Ireland – occupies the north of the island of the same name and consists of 6 counties.
- Dependent territories – the Channel Islands and the island Maine.
UK Political Map
Overseas Territory UK:
- Anguilla in the Caribbean.
- British Antarctic Territory.
- British Indian Ocean Territory.
- British Virgin Islands.
- Cayman islands.
- Falkland Islands.
- Other small islands of the Atlantic and Caribbean the pool.
The UK is one of the largest countries in Europe, which It has a very high population density. Largest ethnic groups: English, Scots, Welsh, Irish. The ethnic composition of the state is formed as a result of complex mixing Celtic peoples, Romans, Normans, Vikings and Anglo-Saxons. The official language is English, which refers to the West German branch of languages. Regionally Scottish, Welsh, Irish and Cornish are common. languages. The majority of the population professes Protestantism.
The British themselves are very conservative, restrained and polite. They straight, respect the elders and appreciate punctuality. AT Britain is considered rude to ask about age, to break queue or privacy of life. In conversation with the British Avoid criticism of the queen, politics and sports teams. Highly impolite is the use of the gadget at the table and discussion of business while eating.
Despite its insular character, the UK has excellent transport accessibility. The largest airport in the country – London Heathrow. There are also four more in the vicinity of London. airport. Other major air ports are located in Manchester, Liverpool and Edinburgh.
The UK is connected to France and the rest of Europe by the tunnel, which runs under the English Channel. The cheapest transport to United Kingdom from France, Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands is a bus. Between London, Paris and Brussels plying high-speed trains. UK has a regular ferry service with the Netherlands, Belgium and France.
Cities of Great Britain
Top cities in the UK:
- London is the capital of Great Britain and the largest city in the country. it one of the main financial centers of the world and leading global cities on a par with New York. London is one of the most popular. tourist destinations in Europe. This is a noisy and vibrant metropolis, which has an amazing concentration of gorgeous attractions and historical monuments as well as is the capital of art, culture, music, education, fashion, politics, finance and trade.
- Belfast – the capital of Northern Ireland and in the past a large center shipbuilding.
- Birmingham is the second largest city in the UK with the rich industrial heritage. He is known for his jewelry channels. decorations and numerous cultural events.
- Bristol – a city with a glorious history and one of the oldest ports Of England. Known for its beautiful Georgian architecture and remarkable “marine” atmosphere.
- Cardiff is the capital of Wales and a former shipping center. City famous for its modern architecture and is an excellent starting point to explore the Welsh beauties.
- Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and one of the most popular cities. Great Britain with magnificent old architecture, rich cultural and historical heritage.
- Glasgow is the largest city of Scotland with a rich industrial by the past. Now known for its beautiful museums, art galleries, concert venues and festivals.
- Liverpool – the city of the Beatles, known for its music, sports and Irish pubs. This is one of the centers of the transatlantic shipping, an important commercial and university city with many beautiful historic buildings.
- Manchester is the commercial and cultural capital of Lancashire. It was once one of the largest industrial centers in Europe, which now famous for entertaining and sporting constructions.
- Bath is one of the most attractive cities in the UK famous for its magnificent antique heritage.
Great Britain Attractions
Stonehenge – the most famous prehistoric monument in Europe, located 10 km north of Salisbury. It is ancient megalithic structure was built between 3000 and 1500 years BC. and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mysterious Stonehenge consists of huge boulders, which called menhirs or megaliths. The exact purpose of it is still it is not known. Although archaeologists tend to conclude that Stonehenge – this is either an ancient graveyard or a building for prediction. cosmic phenomena.
Buckingham Palace – one of the most iconic buildings UK and most popular places of London. It was built in 1837 and is the main residence of the British Royal family since the accession to the throne of Queen Victoria.
Tower of London – one of the main historical monuments Great Britain. This ancient castle was founded in the 11th century during the William the Conqueror and is witness to a rich history The United Kingdom, during which he was a prison, Palace, treasury and even menagerie. Near located The legendary Tower Bridge, which was built in the late 19th century and considered one of the symbols of London.
Big Ben – famous London landmark, which is a tower of the Palace of Westminster with gigantic for hours. Big Ben was built in 1859.
Westminster Abbey – a magnificent gothic church, founded in the 11th century. Is the place of coronation and burial English monarchs.
Church St. Paul’s
Church of sv. Paul’s – the largest and most famous church London, a masterpiece of English Baroque.
Roman Baths in the city of Bath
Roman baths in the city of Bath – magnificent antique baths, built around 2,000 years ago. The city itself is known for a wonderful Georgian architecture.
Canterbury Cathedral is a magnificent Gothic cathedral and the main Anglican temple of the United Kingdom. This ancient church are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and reflect the architecture different centuries.
York Cathedral – a masterpiece of Gothic architecture and the second significance of the Anglican Church of Great Britain. Centrally located old York surrounded by half-timbered medieval houses.
Lake District edge
The Lake District is a national park, which is considered one of The most beautiful places in the UK. Includes 12 large lakes and many picturesque landscapes.
Cotswolds – hilly ridge, which is located in the west Central England (mainly in Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire). Known for its picturesque beech forests, small villages with old stone houses and pastures.
Windsor Castle – the most famous of the royal castles Great Britain, located in the picturesque town of Windsor and founded in 1078 by William the Conqueror. It is great construction for nearly a thousand years serves as a summer residence the British royal family and is the world’s largest inhabited lock.
Loch Ness is a deep lake that is one of the most scenic spots of Scotland. This place is known to be mysterious. stories about the Loch Ness monster and stunning scenery. Ruin The castle on the coast dates back to the 14th century and is one of the largest in the north of the UK.
Carnarvon – a mighty medieval fortress built in 13 century by the English king Edward I.
Edinburgh Castle is a proud medieval fortress that towers over the Scottish capital. It is one of the most famous sights of Scotland and the residence of its kings until 1603.
Glenfinnan is an arched railway viaduct located in Scotland This amazing engineering structure has received a wide fame thanks to the Harry Potter series.
The UK has an extensive network of hotels, which are divided on a scale of five stars to one. Cheapest Premier Inn Networks and Travelodge. A great budget option is B & B hotels. (bed – breakfast). In large cities of the UK is enough many youth hostels. To find the best and cheapest options need to search for accommodation in advance.
Hotel in Great Britain
Despite the stereotypes, British cuisine is very tasty and satisfying. The food here is more expensive than in Southern Europe, but cheaper than in Scandinavian countries. Interestingly, usually the cost of food in provincial pubs can be a bit higher. British breakfast usually consists of cornflakes and toast with jam as well boiled eggs, fried bacon, sausages and tomatoes.
- Cod with potatoes.
- Black Pudding – Blood Sausage
- Cornish Pasty – beef and vegetables, baked in dough.
- Eccles Cake – puff pastry cake with raisins.
- Haggis – a mixture of sheep viscera, minced meat and oatmeal.
- Lancashire Hotpot – hearty vegetable and meat stew.
- Laverbread – seaweed puree with bacon.
- Oatcakes – oatmeal cakes.
- Pastie – pasta with minced pork, onions, potatoes and spices.
- Pork pie – pork pie
- Potato Bread – a mixture of potatoes, salt, butter and flour.
Great Britain is famous for its alcoholic beverages: whiskey, Ale, Beer, Cider The main soft drink is, of course, tea, which the British drink with milk.