Austria

Austria – the most detailed information about the country with a photo. Attractions, cities in Austria, climate, geography, population and culture.

Austria (Österreich)

Austria is a state in Central Europe. This is one of the most secure and calm countries of the European Union, which does not have landlocked and bordered by Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west, Germany and the Czech Republic in the north, Slovakia and Hungary in the east, Slovenia and Italy in the south. Austria is federated parliamentary republic, which consists of 9 federal states. The official language is German. Most of the population – catholics

Austria is the heart of a powerful empire in the past. Habsburg, which occupied a large part of Europe and subdued most neighboring states, this is one of the cultural centers European continent and the harbor of Western musical traditions. it country of stunning nature from the snow and covered with forest the majestic Alps to the elegant Danube and ice caves Eisriesenwelt Austria attracts with its rich cultural the heritage, the majestic architecture of Vienna and Salzburg, stunning natural scenery and calm, friendly the atmosphere.

Flag of Austria Flag of Austria

  • Useful information
  • Geography and nature
  • Climate
  • Best time to visit
  • Story
  • Administrative division
  • Population
  • Transport
  • Cities of Austria
  • sights
  • Accommodation
  • Kitchen

Useful information about Austria

  1. The official language is German.
  2. Currency – Euro.
  3. Visa – Schengen.
  4. The standard of living is very high.
  5. The population is more than 8.8 million people.
  6. Area – 83 879 square meters. m
  7. The capital is Vienna.
  8. The time zone is +1. Relative to Moscow time -1 in summer and -2 in the winter.
  9. The form of government is a federal parliamentary republic.
  10. More than 70% of the population is Catholic.
  11. The electrical network has a voltage of 220 to 230 V, 50 Hz
  12. It will be good to leave a tip in the amount of 5-10% of the amount, provided, of course, that you enjoyed it.
  13. Austria is one of the safest countries in the world with very low crime rate.
  14. ATMs in Austria are called Bankomat. They are wide common and you can withdraw money even in small villages. Almost all shops and restaurants accept banking. cards.

Geography and nature

Austria is a mountainous country that does not have access to the sea. Mountains occupy more than 70% of the territory, and 2/3 are located at a height of more than 500 meters above sea level. More than half of the country occupy the forests. The foothills are covered with deciduous forests (beech and oak), and coniferous forests (spruce, fir, larch, cedar) predominate in the mountains. Above alpine meadows and glaciers are located. Austria’s highest peak – Mount Grossglockner (3798 m).

Forest in the Austrian Alps Forest in austrian The alps

Austria can be divided into three geographical areas: most of it is occupied by the Eastern Alps, the other part is foothills, Bohemian Forest (Böhmerwald) and the Danube Valley and, finally, the smallest part is the Vienna Basin (part of the Middle Danube the plains). The fauna is typical for Central Europe. Although in Austria has preserved more wildlife and natural habitats. There are: red deer, elk, roe deer, brown bear, wild boar, mountain eagle, chamois, wood-grouse, black grouse.

Lake Traun Lake Traun

Austria’s largest river is the Danube. Extreme west refers to the valley of the rhine. Other major rivers are the Inn, the Enns, the Drava and the Morava. AT the mountains are many mountain rivers with fast flowing and clear water. By the territory of the country absently more than half a thousand lakes. Largest of these are Atter, Traun, Lake Constance and Neusiedler See.

Climate

The climate is moderate, transitional to continental and strongly depending on the altitude zone (zoning). Summer is warm and sunny on the plains and foothills, cooler and rainy in the mountains. Winter also has differences. In the mountains it is usually quite cold and a lot of snow, plains have a mild winter and small negative temperature

Winter in the Alps Winter in the Alps

Best time to visit

The best time to visit Austria is to get acquainted with The cultural and historical heritage is June and September. In that the period is usually warm and dry. For skiing better come from November to March.

Alpine landscapes Alpine landscapes

Story

In ancient times, the territory of Austria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was conquered by the Romans and turned to the roman province. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Austria was conquered by the Franks. In 803, the Austrian brand was formed which at the end of the 10th century became the Eastern mark.

The country name Osterreich is translated from ancient German as “Eastern State”. “Austria” is also used for naming territory of the country from the 10th century.

In the Middle Ages, Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Tyrol were independent states. In 1156 Austria became an independent duchy, which was ruled by the Babenberg dynasty. AT 1276 they were replaced by the Habsburgs who ruled the country before the First world war and under whose rule the state reached the highest heyday.

Austrian rural landscapes Austrian rural landscapes

In the 15th century, the power of the Habsburgs in Europe began to grow rapidly. From 1438 year, the dukes of Austria almost always became emperors Holy Roman Empire. In 1526 the composition of the Austrian the dukedoms entered the Czech Republic and Croatia, in 1687 as a result of the union in The state entered Hungary, in the late 18th century Galicia, Lesser Poland and South Mazovia. Habsburg state in that the period was one of the most powerful states Europe.

During the Napoleonic wars, the Austrian archdukes lost title of emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, but acquired the title Emperor of Austria. In 1815, the German Union was created, and Austrian emperors became its presidents. About this period Lombardy and Veneto were annexed to the empire. In 1859 after the Austro-Italian-French War the Italian territories were lost, and in 1866 the German Union ceased to exist. WITH In 1867, the empire became known as Austria-Hungary.

Autumn in the Alps Autumn in The alps

After World War I, Austria-Hungary ceased its Existence. From the empire left Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. Austria has become a republic. In 1938 the territory of the country was annexed by fascist Germany. Austria was released in April 1945. Since October 1955 the law on permanent neutrality. Austria has become a member of the European Union since 1995. of the year.

Administrative division

Austria is divided into 9 federal states. Vienna is metropolitan the city.

Administrative division Administrative division

Federal states of Austria:

  • Burgenland – the administrative center of the city Eisenstadt.
  • Carinthia is the administrative center of the city of Klagenfurt.
  • Lower Austria – the administrative center of the city St. Pölten.
  • Upper Austria is the administrative center of Linz.
  • Salzburg is the administrative center of the city of Salzburg.
  • Styria is the administrative center of the city of Graz.
  • Tyrol is the administrative center of the city of Innsbruck.
  • Vorarlberg – the administrative center of the city of Bregenz
  • The capital city of Vienna.

Population

Austrians are serious about formalities and etiquette, they friendly, fairly open and very respectful of tradition. Not worth it compare them with the Germans or consider their language purely German. Austrians – This is a separate nation with its own dialect. Overwhelming majority Austrian population professes Catholicism. Religion and traditions play a big role in the life of an Austrian. Most of the main holy days are holidays. Austrians adore titles and very proud of them. In the business letter, they will indicate their academic degree starting with the master. Also there is such a mark in Austrian passport.

Alps Alps

Some rules of etiquette in Austria:

  • When greeting you should say “Grüß Gott”, and at parting “Wiedersehen” (“Auf” is usually omitted).
  • Do not raise your voice or shout in public places – it can regard as aggression.
  • You should always use the form of Sie when talking to seniors or strangers.
  • When meeting the Austrians shake hands and look at each other in eyes. Lack of eye contact may be regarded as condescension.

Transport

There are 6 international airports in Austria. The largest is located in Vienna. Others are located in Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz and Salzburg. The most accessible and easy way to travel country – the train. Austria has a dense railway network including also high-speed trains. By train you can get to Austria from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, Switzerland. Bus service within the country is not very common. AT Basically, buses are used to move between small cities and remote villages.

Autobahn in Austria Autobahn in Austria

Austria has excellent motorways to get around who need to buy a vignette. Vignette can be bought at a gas station or paragraphs “Cantor”.

From Germany:

  • The A8 motorway from Munich to Salzburg.
  • The A93 motorway from Rosenheim via Kufstein to Innsbruck and Tyrol.
  • E43 (A96) from Leutkirch via Wangen to Bregenz and Vorarlberg
  • E56 from Regensburg via Passau to Linz.

From Italy:

  • Motorway A23 (E55) through Tarvisio to Villach.
  • Motorway A22 (E45) through Brenner to Innsbruck.

From Slovenia:

  • E652 in Villach.
  • E57 via Spielfeld to Graz.

Cities of Austria

Vienna - the capital of Austria Vein

Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria with a population of almost 2 million people It is the heart of the country and one of the cultural and economic centers of Europe. Vienna is famous for its theaters, music and museums. Here Mozart and Strauss worked, talented architects turned Vienna into the pearl of the European continent, and The Habsburgs have collected the richest collections of cultural objects and art. The historic center of the capital of Austria is an object UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Salzburg Salzburg

Salzburg is one of the most beautiful cities in Austria. His old the city is a pearl of baroque. Also the historic center of Salzburg – UNESCO World Heritage Site. Here was born the genius Mozart, and the mighty castle hohensalzburg is the largest fully untouched medieval fortress in central europe.

Hallstatt Hallstatt

Hallstatt – a tiny village, lost in the Alps, has long been became one of the symbols of Austria and the most popular places. it small settlement in a beautiful natural area on the shore lakes with beautiful houses and stunning scenery.

Other interesting cities in Austria:

  • Innsbruck is the capital of Tyrol, known as the capital of the Sacred Roman Empire, historic buildings, charming old city ​​and sports facilities.
  • Graz is the capital of Styria and the second largest city of Austria. Known for its universities and the old city.
  • Linz is the third largest city in the country and the capital of the federal lands of Upper Austria. Located near the border with the Czech Republic and famous for its ancient streets and architecture.
  • Villach is the second largest city of Carinthia, which is located on the border with Italy. It has a rich history and famous cultural events.
  • Bregenz is a small town and the capital of Vorarlberg. Located in scenic location on the shores of Lake Constance.
  • St. Pölten is the capital of Lower Austria and one of the oldest cities of the country.

sights

Hofburg Hofburg

Hofburg – Imperial Palace in Vienna. Huge luxury the building, which was the winter residence of the Habsburgs from the 13th century. Numerous restructurings were reflected in its architecture, in which You can find items from gothic to modern. Palace includes more 2000 rooms and several museums.

Schönbrunn Schönbrunn

Schönbrunn is the summer residence of Empress Maria Theresa. Luxurious 18th century baroque palace with a beautiful garden. Situated on the outskirts of Vienna and is listed as a World Heritage Site UNESCO.

St. Stephen's Cathedral Cathedral of sv. Stefan

Cathedral of sv. Stefan in Vienna – one of the most significant masterpieces European gothic and one of the largest religious buildings in Austria. For a long time the building of the cathedral with the tower was the highest construction of Europe.

Hohensalzburg Hohensalzburg

Hohensalzburg – the medieval fortress on the mountain Festungsberg, Salzburg business card. It is the largest structure of this type in Europe, which is preserved in the original condition.

Old Town in Innsbruck Old town in Innsbruck

Old Town in Innsbruck – medieval historic center with unique architecture surrounded by snow-capped peaks Alp.

Benedictine Abbey in Melk Benedictine abbey in Melk

The Benedictine Abbey in Melk – one of the most famous monasteries in the world. Located on a cliff overlooking the Danube. In his Walls hold valuable art and historical objects. rarities.

Hohenverfen Hohenverfen

Hohenverfen is a mighty medieval castle located on rocky ledge above the river Salzach. It was founded in the 11th century. Located 40 km from Salzburg and open to the public.

Khokhostervice Khokhostervice

Khokhostervice – medieval castle east of St. Veit on high rock. Considered one of the most important monuments of the era Middle Ages in Austria. The castle has been mentioned since the 9th century. For all his story he was never captured.

Church Maria Zal Church Maria Zal

Maria Zal Church – Medieval Gothic Church over Solfeld, which is one of the most popular places for pilgrims. It stands out for its twin towers and beautiful old ones. tombstones.

Eisriesenwelt Eisriesenwelt

Eisriesenwelt – the world’s largest network of ice caves, located in the federal state of Salzburg. One of the most the striking natural attractions of Austria.

Alpine Road Grossglockner Alpine road Grossglockner

The Grossglockner Alpine Road is one of the most magnificent mountain roads in Europe, built on the site of the ancient Roman path. It has a length of 22 kilometers and passes through the mountains at a height more than 2000 meters. The road consists of a long series of turns, leading to the top of the tunnel at Khoktor. This path will open magnificent views of the mountains and an amazing panorama of the highest peak Austria – Grossglockner mountains.

St. Anton am ArlbergSt. Anton am Arlberg

St. Anton am Arlberg – a famous ski resort, located in Tyrol. This is a legendary place for all lovers. alpine skiing.

Accommodation

Hotels and guest houses can be found in almost any Austrian countryside. Most of them are significantly more expensive than in other cities in Europe. Frequently charged for cleaning the room so you need to carefully look at the living conditions when booking. Living in Vienna and Salzburg costs much more than a room in a picturesque alpine hotel somewhere in the austrian outback. To check in at any hotel, you need a document identity card.

Guest house in Austria Guest house in Austria

Kitchen

Austrian cuisine is delicious and refined. She absorbed in culinary traditions of Bavaria, Hungary, Serbia, Romania and Dalmatia. The real star of Austrian cuisine is the desserts. A large role is also assigned to bread. Even in the smallest Alpine village often has its own bakery.

Wiener Schnitzel Wiener Schnitzel

Traditional dishes and drinks:

  • Wiener Schnitzel – grilled beef chop in bread breaded
  • Tafelspitz – boiled beef with potatoes and horseradish.
  • Knödel is something like our dumplings. Especially popular in Tyrol
  • Palatschinken – thin pancakes with different fillings.
  • Liptauer – a dish of cream cheese with paprika.
  • Strudel is a famous Austrian dessert consisting of thin layers of fried pastries filled with apples and raisins.
  • Sacher – the legendary chocolate cake.
  • Salzburger Nockerln – Baked Vanilla Souffle
  • Mehlspeisen – pudding.
  • Stroh – spiced rum.
  • Gluhwein – hot red wine with orange and spices.

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Video

Austria on the map

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